Standards publications

For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

BS EN 752-4, Drain and sewer systems outside buildings – Part 4: Hydraulic design and environmental considerations

BS 6031:1981, Code of practice for earthworks7)

BS 6100-1/BS ISO 6707-1:2004, Building and civil engineering – Vocabulary – Part 1: General terms

BS 6100-3, Building and civil engineering – Vocabulary – Part 3: Civil engineering – General

BS 8006-1, Code of practice for strengthened/reinforced soils and other fills

BS 8006-2, Code of practice for soil nailing

BS 8900:2006, Guidance for managing sustainable development

BS EN 12670, Natural stone – Terminology

BS EN 14899, Characterization of waste – Sampling of waste materials – Framework for the preparation and application of a sampling plan

BS EN 13285, Unbound mixtures – Specification

BS EN 13286 (all parts), Unbound and hydraulically bound mixtures

BS EN 14227 (all parts), Hydraulically bound mixtures – Specifications

Non-standards publications

NOTE The SHW [1] is referenced normatively and is therefore listed in the normative references clause (Clause 2).

[2] Manual of Contract Documents for Highway Works, Volume 2 – Notes for Guidance on the Specification for Highway Works. Highways Agency. (

[3] Institution of Civil Engineers. A guide to the Reservoirs Act 1975. 2000.

[4] Johnston T.A., Millmore J.P., Charles J.A. and Tedd P. An engineering guide to the safety of embankment dams in the UK. BRE 363. 1999.

[5] Frank R., Bauduin C., Driscoll R., Kavvadas M. and Krebs Ovesen N. Designer's Guide to EN 1997-1: Eurocode 7: Geotechnical Design – General Rules. Thomas Telford.

[6] Department of Communities and Local Government. A designer's simple guide to BS EN 1997. London. 2007. (www.communities.

[7] Driscoll R., Scott P. and Powell J. Eurocode 7: implications for UK practice. CIRIA C641. 2009.

[8] Trenter N.A. Engineering in glacial tills. CIRIA C504. 1999.

[9] Office of the Rail Regulator. Railway safety principles and guidance (RSPG) part 1 and 2 (

[10] GREAT BRITAIN. Construction (Design and Management) Regulations 2007. (CDM)

[11] Highways Agency. HD 22/08, Design Manual for Roads and Bridges, Volume 4 Geotechnics and Drainage, Section 1 Earthworks, Part 2 Managing Geotechnical Risk. 2008.

[12] GREAT BRITAIN. Environmental Assessment of Plans and Programmes Regulations 2004.

[13] Building Research Establishment. Special Digest SD1. Concrete in aggressive ground. 2005.

[14] GREAT BRITAIN The Waste Management Regulations 2006.

[15] Winter M.G., Watts G.R.A. and Johnson P.E. Tyre Bales in Construction. TRL Report PPR080. 2006.

[16] Nicholson D., Tse C-M. and Penny C. The observational method in ground engineering: principles and applications. CIRIA R185. 1999.

[17] Highways Agency. HA 44/91, Design Manual for Roads and Bridges, Volume 4 Geotechnics and Drainage, Section 1 Earthworks, Part 1 Design and Preparation of Contract Documents (inc. Amendment No. 1 1995). 1995.

[18] Highways Agency. HA 70/94, Design Manual for Roads and Bridges, Volume 4 Geotechnics and Drainage, Section 1 Earthworks, Part 5 Construction of Highway Earthworks. 1994.

[19] Woodhead Publishing. Manual of Laboratory Soil Testing. 1999. (ISBN 978 341 014 048 1)

[20] Site Investigation Steering Group. Thomas Telford: Site Investigation in Construction Series Parts 1 to 4.

[21] Dunnicliff J. Geotechnical instrumentation for monitoring field performance. 1988.

[22] Bromhead E. The Stability of Slopes. Second edition. Taylor and Francis. 1998.

[23] Lupini J.F., Skinner A.E. and Vaughan P.R. The drained residual strength of the cohesive soils. Geotechnique. 31, No. 2. 1981.

[24] Hight D.W. Laboratory Investigations of Sea-bed Clays. PhD thesis. Imperial College of Science and Technology. London. 1983.

[25] Bolton M. A Guide to Soil Mechanics. Wiley. 1980.

[26] Wyllie D.C. and Mah C.W., Rock Slope Engineering Civil and Mining. 4th Edition. 2004.

[27] TRL. Project Report PR/ISS/16/00. Rock Engineering Guide to Good Practice Road Rock Slope Excavation. 2000.

[28] Bond A. and Harris A. Decoding Eurocode 7. Taylor and Francis. 2008.

[29] Perry J., Pedley M. and Brady K. Infrastructure cuttings – condition appraisal and remedial treatment, 2nd edition. CIRIA C591. 2003.

[30] Carder D.R., Watts G.R.A., Campton L. and Motley S. Drainage of Earthworks Slopes. UPR IE/143/07. Halcrow Group Ltd.

[31] Building Research Establishment. Soakaways. Digest DG365. 1991.

[32] Flood Estimation Handbook, Centre for Ecology and Hydrology. 1999. (

[33] Woods B. and Kellagher R. The SUDS Manual. CIRIA C697. 2007.

[34] Lord J.A., Clayton C.R.I. and Mortimore R.N. Engineering in Chalk. CIRIA C574. 2002.

[35] Trenter N.A. Earthworks: a guide, Thomas Telford. 2001.

[36] Charles, J.A., and Skinner, H.D. Compressibility of foundation fills. Proceedings of the ICE Geotechnical Engineering. 2001.

[37] BRE Digest 427. Low-rise buildings on fill, Part 3 Engineered fill. 1998.

[38] Parsons A.W. Compaction of Soils and Granular Materials – a review of research performed at the TRL. 1993.

[39] Charles J.A., Skinner H.D. and Watts K.S. The specification of fills to support buildings on shallow foundations: the "95% fixation". Ground Engineering, 31, 1, pp 29-33. 1998.

[40] Trenter N.A. and Charles J.A. A model specification for engineered fills for building purposes. Proc ICE, Geotechnical Engineering. 119, 4, pp 219-230. 1996.

[41] Reeves G.M., Sims I. and Cripps J.C. (Eds). Clay Materials Used in Construction Engineering Geology. Geological Society Publishing House. SP21. 2006.

[42] Charles J.A. and Watts K.S. Building on fill: geotechnical aspects (second edition). Building Research Establishment Report BR 424. 2001.

[43] Highways Agency. HA 74/07, Design Manual for Roads and Bridges, Volume 4 Geotechnics and Drainage, Section 1 Earthworks, Part 6 Treatment of Fill and Capping Materials Using Either Lime or Cement or Both. 2007.

[44] Brampton A., Wallis M. and Halliday E. Potential use of alternatives to primary aggregates in coastal and river engineering. CIRIA C590. 2004.

[45] CIRIA The Rock Manual. The use of rock in hydraulic engineering, 2nd edition.C683. 2007.

[46] Escaramia M. River and channel revetments – A design manual. Thomas Telford. 1998.

[47] Hemphill and Bramley. Protection of river and canal banks. CIRIA B9. 1989.

[48] River Restoration Centre. Manual of Techniques for River Restoration. 2002. (

[49] UIC 719 Ed. 3. Earthworks and Track Bed Construction for Railway Lines. 2008.

[50] Healy P.R. and Head J.M. Construction over abandoned mine workings. CIRIA SP32. 1984. (under review)

[51] Highways Agency. HA 55/92. Design Manual for Roads and Bridges, Volume 10 Environmental Design and Management, Section 1 New Road, Part 1 New Road Landform and Alignment.

[52] Coppin N.J. and Richards I.G. (Eds). Use of vegetation in civil engineering. CIRIA C708. 2007.

[53] Hiller D.M. and Macneil D.J. A review of the use of live willow poles for stabilising highway slopes. TRL 508. 2001.

[54] O'Brien A.S. Rehabilitation of Urban Railway Embankments – Investigation, Analysis and Stabilisation. XIV European Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. pp 24–27. Madrid, Spain. 2007.

[55] Booy D., Wade M. and White V. Invasive species management for infrastructure managers and the construction industry. CIRIA C679. 2008.

[56] Oliphant J. and Winter M.G. Limits of use of the moisture condition apparatus. Proc ICE Transport. Thomas Telford. 1992.

[57] McGuire M.P. and Filz G.M. Specifications for Embankment and Subgrade Compaction. Report VTRC 05-CR21. Virginia Transportation Research Council. 2005.

[58] Mooney M. and White D. Intelligent soil compaction systems. NCHRP Transportation Research Board of the National Acadamies. 21-09 Project. 2007.

[59] Department for Transport. Traffic Signs Manual, Chapter 8 Roadworks and Temporary Situations. 2008.

[60] Pettifer G.S. and Fookes P.G. A revision of the graphical method of assessing the excavability of rock. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology. 27, pp 59-81. 1994.

[61] Fookes, P. G. and Sweeney, M. Stabilization and control of local rock falls and degrading rock slopes. Q.J. Eng. Geol., 9, pp 37–55. 1976.

[62] Caterpillar. Caterpillar Performance Handbook Edition 38. 2008.

[63] Perry J., Pedley M. and Reid M. Infrastructure embankments – condition appraisal and remedial treatment, 2nd edition. CIRIA C592. 2003.

[64] Scott J.M., Loveridge F. and O'Brien A.S. Influence of climate and vegetation on railway embankments, XIV European Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Madrid, Spain. 2007.

[65] Wilson C.J. and Byrnes R.G. The Management of Problems involving Badgers. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. 1996.

[66] O'Brien A.S., Ellis E.A. and Russell D. Old Railway Embankment Clay Fill – Laboratory Experiments, Numerical Modelling and Field Behaviour, Advances in Geotechnical Engineering: The Skempton Conference. Thomas Telford. 2004

[67] Derailment near Moy, Inverness-shire on 26 November 2005. RAIB. Report 22/2006. 2006.

[68] Ridley A.M., Vaughn P.R., McGinnity B. and Brady K. Poor pressure measurements in infrastructure embankments. Advances in Geotechnical Engineering: The Skempton Conference. Thomas Telford. 2004.

[69] HSE Books. Safe work in confined spaces: confined spaces regulations 2007. Approved code of practice, regulations and guidance.2009.

[70] HSE. HSG 185. Health and Safety in Excavations – Be Safe and Shore. 1999.

[71] Irvine D.J. and Smith R.J.H. Trenching practice, 2nd Edition. CIRIA R97. 1983.

[72] Twine D. and Roscoe H. Temporary propping of deep excavations, guidance on design. CIRIA C517. 1992.

[73] Phear A., Dew C., Ozsoy B., Wharmby N.J., Judge J. and Barley A.D. Soil nailing – best practice guidance. CIRIA C637. 2005.

[74] GREAT BRITAIN. New Roads and Street Works Act 1991.

[75] Grimes J.F. and Martin P. Trenchless and minimum excavation techniques: planning and selection. CIRIA SP147. 1998.

[76] GREAT BRITAIN. The Manual Handling Operations Regulations 1992 (as amended 2002).

[77] Preene M., Roberts T.O.L., Powrie W. and Dyer M.R. Groundwater control – design and practice. CIRIA C515. 2000.

[78] Winter M.G., MacGregor F. and Shackman L. Scottish Road Network Landslides Study. Scottish Executive. 2005. (

[79] Potts D. Role of progressive slope failure. HA Workshop: Delayed deep-seated failure of over-consolidated clay earthworks. 2005.

Further reading

AS 3798, Guidelines on earthworks for commercial and residential developments. Third edition. Standards Australia. Reissued incorporating amendment No. 1 2008.

Chandler, R. J. and Skempton, A. W. The design of permanent cutting slopes in stiff fissured clays. Geotechnique. 24. 1974.

Skempton, A. W. and Hutchinson, J. N. Stability of natural slopes and embankment foundations. 7th Int. Conf. I.S.S.M.F.E., Mexico, 1969, State of the Art Volume.

Chant-Hall, G., Charles, P., and Connolly, S. Environmental good practice on site. CIRIA C650. 2005.

Horner, P.C. Earthworks – ICE Construction Guides. Thomas Telford. 1981. Wallingford H.R. Sustainable re-use of tyres in Port, Coastal and River Engineering, Guidance for planning, implementation and maintenance. SR669. 2005.

Practical Guidelines for the Design and Construction of Road Embankments. PIARC. 1999.

Design of Earthworks, Earthwork Remediations and Geotechnical Aspects of Foundations for Structures. RT/CE/S/071. Network Rail. 2004.

Development of Stiffness-Based Specifications for In-Situ Embankment Compaction Quality Control. Kansas Department of Transportation. 2007.

Guide to Earthwork Construction. State of the Art Report 8. TRB 1990

Snowdon RA. Compaction monitoring devices for earthworks. TRL Research Report 361. 1992.

BS 6031:2009 Code of practice for earthworks