Standards publications

For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

BS 6349-1-3, Maritime works – Part 1-2: General – Code of practice for geotechnical design

BS 8103-1, Structural design of low-rise buildings – Part 1: Code of practice for stability, site investigation, foundations, precast concrete floors and ground floor slabs for housing

BS EN 335-1:1992, Hazard classes of wood and wood-based products against biological attack – Part 1: Classification of hazard classes14)

BS EN 335-2:1992, Durability of wood and wood-based products – Definition of use classes – Part 2: Application to solid wood14)

BS EN 335-3:1992, Hazard classes of wood and wood-based products against biological attack – Part 3: Application to wood-based panels14)

BS EN 338, Structural timber – strength classes

BS EN 1538:2010, Execution of special geotechnical works – Diaphragm walls

BS EN ISO 19901-4, Petroleum and natural gas industries. Specific requirements for offshore structures. Geotechnical and foundation design considerations

NA+A1:2012 to BS EN 1993-5:2007, UK National Annex to Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures – Part 5: Piling

PD 6484:1979, Commentary on corrosion at bi-metallic contacts and its remediation

Other publications

[1] BURLAND, J., CHAPMAN, T., SKINNER, H., and BROWN, M. (editors). ICE manual of geotechnical engineering, Volume II, Geotechnical Design, Construction and Verification. London: ICE Publishing, 2012, ISBN 978-0-7277-5709-8:

Section 8 – SUCKLING, T.P. (editor). Construction processes;

Chapter 52 – O'BRIEN, A.S. Foundation types and conceptual design principles;

Chapter 53 – O'BRIEN, A.S., and FAROOQ, I. Shallow foundations;

Chapter 54 – BELL, A., and ROBINSON, C. Single piles;

Chapter 55 – O'BRIEN, A.S. Pile-group design;

Chapter 56 – O'BRIEN, A.S., BURLAND, J.B., and CHAPMAN, T. Rafts and piled rafts;

Chapter 59 – ESSLER, R. Design principles for ground improvement;

Chapter 60 – SRBULOV, M., and O'BRIEN, A.S. Foundations subjected to cyclic and dynamic loads;

Chapter 80 – PREENE, M. Groundwater control;

Chapter 81 – WADE, S., HANDLEY, R., and MARTIN, J. Types of bearing piles; Chapter 83 – JOLLEY, T. Underpinning;

Chapter 84 – SERRIDGE, C.J., and SLOCOMBE, B. Ground improvement;

Chapter 94 – DUNNICLIFF, J., MARR, W.A., and STANDING, J. Principles of geotechnical monitoring;

Chapter 96 – GLOVER, S., and CHEW, G. Technical supervision of site works; Chapter 97 – FRENCH, S., and TURNER, M. Pile integrity testing;

Chapter 98 – BROWN, M., Pile capacity integrity testing; Chapter 101 – LINDSAY, R., and KEMP, M. Close-out reports.

[2] BURLAND, J., CHAPMAN, T., SKINNER, H., and BROWN, M. (editors). ICE manual of geotechnical engineering, Volume I, Geotechnical Engineering Principles, Problematic Soils and Site Investigation. London: ICE Publishing, 2012, ISBN 978-0-7277-5707-4:

Section 3 – JEFFERSON, I. (editor). Problematic soils and their issues;

Section 4 – BRACEGIRDLE, A. (editor). Site investigation;

Chapter 8 – RANNER, D., and SUCKLING, T. Health and safety in geotechnical engineering;

Chapter 9 – O'BRIEN, A.S. and BURLAND, J.B. Foundation design decisions;

Chapter 14 – BURLAND, J.B. Soils as particulate materials;

Chapter 17 – BURLAND, J.B. Strength and deformation behaviour of soils; Chapter 18 – SANDERSON, D.J. Rock behaviour;

Chapter 21 – POWRIE, W. Bearing capacity theory;

Chapter 25 – ROGERS, C.D.F. The role of ground improvement; Chapter 26 – BURLAND, J.B. Building response to ground movements; Chapter 31 – CLARKE, B. Glacial soils;

Chapter 33 – JONES, L.D., and JEFFERSON, I. Expansive soils;

Chapter 34 – BELL, F.G., CULSHAW, M.G., and SKINNER, H.D. Non-engineered fills;

Chapter 36 – CZEREWKO, M.A. and CIPPS, J.C. Mudrocks, clays and pyrite.

[3] GREAT BRITAIN. The Construction (Design and Management) Regulations 2015. The Stationery Office: London, 2015.

[4] NHBC Foundation/Arup, Efficient design of piled foundations for low-rise housing. NHBC Design Guide NF21, 2010, ISBN 978-1-84806-106-4.

[5] CHARLES, J.A., and WATTS, K.S. Building on fill: geotechnical aspects (BRE Report 424, 2nd edition), Watford: BRE, 2001. ISBN 1-86081-509-X.

[6] CASHMAN, P.M., and PREENE, M. Groundwater lowering in construction: a practical guide. London: Spon, 2001, ISBN 978-0-419-21110-5.

[7] POWERS, J.P., CORWIN, A.B., SCHMALL, P.C., and KAECK, W.E. Construction dewatering and groundwater control: new methods and applications (3rd edition). New York: Wiley, 2007, ISBN 978-0-471-47943-7.

[8] PREENE, M., ROBERTS, T.O.L., POWRIE, W., and DYER, M.R. Groundwater control: design and practice (CIRIA Report C515). London: CIRIA, 2015, ISBN 978-0-8601-7515-5.

[9] NHBC. NHBC Standards. Available from: (last viewed 25/6/15).

[10] PHEAR, A.G., and HARRIS, S.J. Contributions to Géotechnique 1948–2008: Ground Improvement. Géotechnique, 2008, Volume 58, Issue 51, pp 399–404.

[11] KIRSCH, K., and BELL, A.L. Ground Improvement (3rd edition). CRC Press, 2013. ISBN 978-0-415-59921-4.

[12] CHARLES, J.A., and WATTS, K.S. Treated ground – engineering properties and performance (CIRIA Report C572). London: CIRIA, 2002, ISBN 978-0-86017-572-8.

[13] MITCHELL, J.M., and JARDINE, F.M. A guide to ground treatment (CIRIA Report C573). London: CIRIA, 2002, ISBN 978-0-86017-573-5.

[14] RAWLINGS, C.G., HELLAWELL, E.E., and KILKENNY, W.M. Grouting for ground engineering (CIRIA Report C514). London: CIRIA, 2000, ISBN 978-0-86017-514-8.

[15] BUILDING RESEARCH ESTABLISHMENT. Design guide: Soft soil stabilisation. EuroSoilStab: Development of design and construction methods to stabilise soft organic soils (EP 60), Garston: IHS BRE Press, 2002, ISBN 1-86081-599-5.

[16] BUILDING RESEARCH ESTABLISHMENT. Specifying vibro stone columns (BRE Report BR 391). Garston: CRC, 2000, ISBN 1-86081-380-1.

[17] INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS. Specification for ground treatment. London: ICE, 1987, ISBN 978-0-7277-4943-7.

[18] ASIRI NATIONAL PROJECT, Recommendations on the design, construction and control of rigid inclusion ground improvements, Paris: Presses des Pont, 2013, ISBN 978-285978-470-6.

[19] NORBURY, D. Soil and rock description in engineering practice. Caithness: Whittles Publishing, 2010, ISBN 978-1904445-65-4.

[20] BOND, A.J. ReWaRD Reference Manual. Banstead, Surrey: 1992-2014, available from (last viewed 25/6/15)

[21] BOLTON, M.D. The strength and dilatancy of sands. Géotechnique, 1986, Vol. 36(1), pp 65–78.

[22] JAMIOLKOWSKI, M., LADD, C.C., GERMAINE, J.T., and LANCELOTTA, R. New developments in field and laboratory testing of soils. Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Soil Mechanics And Foundation Engineering, San Francisco, 1985, vol. 1, pp 57–153.

[23] SANTAMARINA, J.C, and DIAZ-RODRIGUEZ, J.A. Friction in soils: micro and macroscale observations. Pan-American Conference, Boston, 2003.

[24] TERZAGHI, K., PECK, R.B., and MESRI, G. Soil mechanics in engineering practice (3rd edition), New York: Wiley-Interscience, 1996, ISBN 0-47108-658-4.

[25] STARK, T.D., CHOI, H., and MCCONE, S. Drained shear strength parameters for analysis of landslides. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 2005, 131(5), pp 575–588

[26] ATKINSON, J.H. Non-linear soil stiffness in routine design. Géotechnique, 2000, Vol. 50(5), pp 487–508.

[27] OZTOPRAK, S., and BOLTON, M.D. Stiffness of sands through a laboratory database. Géotechnique, 2013, Volume 63, Issue 1, pp 54–70.

[28] VARDANEGA, P.J., and BOLTON, M.D. Stiffness of clays and silts: normalizing shear modulus and shear strain. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 2013, 139, pp 1575–1589.

[29] CLAYTON, C.R.I. Stiffness at small strain: research and practice. Géotechnique, 2011, Vol. 61(1), pp 5–37.

[30] VIGGIANI, G., and ATKINSON, J.H. Stiffness of fine-grained soil at very small strains. Géotechnique, 1995, 45(2), pp 249–265.

[31] CHARLES, J.A., and WATTS, K.S. Building on fill: geotechnical aspects (BRE Report 424, 2nd edition), Watford: BRE, 2001. ISBN 1-86081-509-X.

[32] GABA, A.R., SIMPSON, B., POWRIE, W., and BEADMAN, D.R. Embedded retaining walls – guidance for economic design (CIRIA C580), London: CIRIA, 2003, ISBN 0-86017-580-4. 15)

[33] BUILDING RESEARCH ESTABLISHMENT. Concrete in aggressive ground (Special Digest 1). Bracknell: BRE Bookshop, 2005, ISBN 1-86081-754-8.

[34] BUILDING RESEARCH ESTABLISHMENT. Marine borers and methods of preserving timber against their attack (Technical Note 59). Watford: Princes Risborough Laboratory, 1972.

[35] STRATEGIC FORUM FOR CONSTRUCTION PLANT SAFETY GROUP (2014), Ground conditions for construction plant, London: Construction Plant-hire Association.

[36] SKINNER, H. Working platforms for tracked plant: good practice guide to the design, installation, maintenance and repair of ground-supported working platforms (BRE Report 470), Watford: BRE, 2004, ISBN 1-86081-700-9.

[37] JEWELL, R.A. Soil reinforcement with geotextiles (CIRIA Special Publication SP 123). London: CIRIA, 1996, ISBN 978-0860174257.

[38] BUILDING RESEARCH ESTABLISHMENT. Low-rise buildings on shrinkable clay soils: Part 1 (BRE Digest 240). London: Construction Research Communications Ltd, 1993, ISBN 0-85125-609-0.

[39] BUILDING RESEARCH ESTABLISHMENT. Low-rise buildings on shrinkable clay soils: Part 2 (BRE Digest 241). London: Construction Research Communications Ltd, 1990, ISBN 0-85125-377-6.

[40] GREAT BRITAIN. Building Regulations 2010 (SI No. 2214 2010) and subsequent amendments. London: The Stationery Office.

GREAT BRITAIN. Building (Amendment) (Wales) Regulations 2014. London: The Stationery Office.

SCOTLAND. Building (Scotland) Regulations 2004 (SSI No. 2004 406) and subsequent amendments. Edinburgh: The Stationery Office.

GREAT BRITAIN. Building Regulations (Northern Ireland) 2012 (SRNI No. 192 2012) and subsequent amendments. Belfast: The Stationery Office.

GREAT BRITAIN. Building Regulations (Isle of Man) Order 2003. SD 829/03. London: The Stationery Office.

[41] POULOS, H.G., CARTER, J.P., and SMALL, J.C. Foundations and retaining structures – research and practice, Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, 2001, Istanbul, Vol. 4, pp 2527–2606.

[42] SALGADO, R., LYAMIN, A.V., SLOAN, S.W., and YU, H.S. Two- and three-dimensional bearing capacity of foundations in clay, Géotechnique, 2004, Vol. 54, No. 5, pp 297–306.

[43] REYNOLDS, T.N. Timber piles and foundations (BRE Digest 479), Watford: BRE, 2003, ISBN 1-86081-661-4.

[44] DEEP FOUNDATIONS INSTITUTE MICROPILE COMMITTEE. Guide to drafting a specification for micropiles. Dallas: DFI, 2004.

[45] International Society of Micropiles, website: (last viewed 25/6/15)

[46] ASUC. Guidelines on safe and efficient underpinning and mini piling operations (3rd edition). Bordon: ASUC, 2015, ISBN 978-0-9545370-0-5, available from (last viewed 25/6/15)

[47] BOND, A.J., and HARRIS, A.J. Decoding Eurocode 7, London: Taylor and Francis, 2008, ISBN 978-0-415-40948-3.

[48] BOND, A.J. and SIMPSON, B. Pile design to Eurocode 7 and the UK National Annex. Part 2: UK National Annex, London: Emap, Ground Engineering, 2010, vol. 43, no 1, pp 28–31.

[49] BEREZANTZEV, V.G., KHRISTOFOROV, V.S., and GOLUBKOV, V.N. Load bearing capacity and deformation of piled foundations. Proceedings of the 5th International Conference of Soil Mechanics And Foundation Engineering, Paris, 1961, Vol. 2, pp 11–15.

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[51] SALGADO, R. The engineering of foundations. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2008, ISBN 978-007-125940-9.

[52] BURLAND, J.B. Shaft friction on piles in clay: a simple fundamental approach. In Ground Engineering, 1973, Vol 6, No 3, pp 3–42.

[53] MEYERHOF, G.G. Bearing capacity and settlement of pile foundations. Journal of Geotechnical Engineering Division of the American Society of Civil Engineers 1976, 102 (GT3), pp 195–228

[54] WELTMAN, A.J., and HEALY, P.R. Piling in 'boulder clay' and other glacial tills. CIRIA Report PG5, London: CIRIA, 1978, ISBN: 978-0-86017-103-4.

[55] LONDON DISTRICT SURVEYORS' ASSOCIATION. Foundations no. 1: Guidance notes for the design of straight shafted bored piles in London clay. Bromley, Kent: LDSA, 2009, ISBN 0-9516518-6-2.

[56] BROWN, D.A., TURNER, J.P., and CASTELLI, R.J. Drilled shafts: construction procedures and LRFD design methods (FHWA Report No. NHI-10-016). Washington: Federal Higway Administration, 2010.

[57] WHITE, D.J. and BOLTON, M.D. Comparing CPT and pile base resistance in sand, Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers Geotechnical Engineering, 158, January 2005, GE1, pp3–14.

[58] LEE, J., SALGADO, R., and PAIK, K. Estimation of load capacity of pipe piles in sand based on CPT results. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 2003, Vol. 129, No 5, 391–403.

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[60] AOKI, N., VELLOSO, D.A., and SALAMONI, J.A. Fundações para o silo vertical de 100000 t no Porto de Paranaguá, Proceedings of the 6th Brazilian Conference of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, 1978, Vol. 3, pp 125–132.

[61] LOPES, F.R., and LAPROVITERA, H. On the prediction of the bearing capacity of bored piles from dynamic penetration tests. In Deep foundations on bored and auger piles (ed. Van IMPE, W.), Rotterdam: Balkema, 1988, pp 537–540.

[62] ESLAMI, A. and FELLENIUS, B.H. Pile capacity by direct CPT and CPTu methods applied to 102 case histories. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 1997, Vol. 34, No. 6, 886–904.

[63] LEHANE, B.M. and RANDOLPH, M.F. Evaluation of a minimum base resistance for driven pipe piles in siliceous sand. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 2002, Vol. 128, No 3, 198-205.

[64] CHOW, F.L. Investigations into the behaviour of displacement piles for offshore structures. PhD Theses, University of London (Imperial College), 1997.

[65] LEE, J., and SALGADO, R. Determination of pile base resistance in sands. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 1999, Vol. 125, No. 8, pp 673-683.

[66] JARDINE, R., CHOW, F., OVERY, R., and STANDING, J. ICP design methods for driven piles in sands and clays. London: Thomas Telford Publishing, 2005, ISBN 0-7277-3272-2.

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BS 8004:2015 Code of practice for foundations