# A.3 Partial factors for structural (STR) and geotechnical (GEO) limit states verification

### A.3.1 Partial factors on actions (γ_{F}) or the effects of actions (γ_{E})

(1)P For the verification of structural (STR) and geotechnical (GEO) limit states set *A1* or set *A2* of the following partial factors on actions (γ_{F}) or the effects of actions (γ_{E}) shall be applied:

- γ
_{G}on permanent unfavourable or favourable actions; - γ
_{Q}on variable unfavourable or favourable actions.

NOTE The values to be ascribed to γ_{G} and γ_{Q} for use in a country may be found in its National annex to EN 1990:2002. The recommended values for buildings in EN 1990:2002 for the two sets *A1* and *A2* are given in table A.3.

_{F}) or the effects of actions (γ

_{E})

Action | Symbol | Set | ||

A1 |
A2 |
|||

Permanent | Unfavourable | γ_{G} |
1,35 | 1,0 |

Favourable | 1,0 | 1,0 | ||

Variable | Unfavourable | γ_{Q} |
1,5 | 1,3 |

Favourable | 0 | 0 |

### A.3.2 Partial factors for soil parameters (γ_{M})

(1)P For the verification of structural (STR) and geotechnical (GEO) limit states set *M1* or set *M2* of the following partial factors on soil parameters (γ_{M}) shall be applied:

- γ
_{φ'}on the tangent of the angle of shearing resistance; - γ
_{c'}on effective cohesion; - γ
_{cu}on undrained shear strength; - γ
_{qu}on unconfined strength; - γ
_{γ}on weight density.

NOTE The values to be ascribed to γ_{φ'}, γ_{c'}, γ_{cu}, γ_{qu} and γ_{γ} for use in a country may be found in its National annex to this standard. The recommended values for the two sets *M1* and *M2* are given in table A.4.

_{M})

Soil parameter | Symbol | Set | |

M1 |
M2 |
||

Angle of shearing resistance ^{a} |
γ_{φ'} |
1,0 | 1,25 |

Effective cohesion | γ_{c'} |
1,0 | 1,25 |

Undrained shear strength | γ_{cu} |
1,0 | 1,4 |

Unconfined strength | γ_{qu} |
1,0 | 1,4 |

Weight density | γ_{γ} |
1,0 | 1,0 |

^{a} This factor is applied to tanφ' |

### A.3.3 Partial resistance factors (γ_{R})

A.3.3.1 Partial resistance factors for spread foundations

(1)P For spread foundations and verifications of structural (STR) and geotechnical (GEO) limit states, set *R1*, *R2* or *R3* of the following partial factors on resistance (γ_{R}) shall be applied:

- γ
_{R;v}on bearing resistance; - γ
_{R;h}on sliding resistance.

NOTE The values to be ascribed to γ_{R;v}, and γ_{R;h} for use in a country may be found in its National annex to this standard. The recommended values for the three sets *R1*, *R2* and *R3* are given in table A.5.

_{R}) for spread foundations

Resistance | Symbol | Set | ||

R1 |
R2 |
R3 |
||

Bearing | γ_{R;v} |
1,0 | 1,4 | 1,0 |

Sliding | γ_{R;h} |
1,0 | 1,1 | 1,0 |

A.3.3.2 Partial resistance factors for pile foundations

(1)P For pile foundations and verifications of structural (STR) and geotechnical (GEO) limit states, set *R1*, *R2*, *R3* or *R4* of the following partial factors on resistance (γ_{R}) shall be applied :

- γ
_{b}on base resistance; - γ
_{s}on shaft resistance for piles in compression; - γ
_{t}on total/combined resistance for piles in compression; - γ
_{s;t}on shaft resistance for piles in tension.

NOTE The values to be ascribed to γ_{b}, γ_{s}, γ_{t} and γ_{s;t} for use in a country may be found in its National annex to this standard. The recommended values for the four sets *R1, R2, R3* and *R4* are given in table A.6 for driven piles, in table A.7 for bored piles and in table A.8 for continuous flight auger (CFA) piles.

_{R}) for driven piles

Resistance | Symbol | Set | |||

R1 |
R2 |
R3 |
R4 |
||

Base | γ_{b} |
1,0 | 1,1 | 1,0 | 1,3 |

Shaft (compression) | γ_{s} |
1,0 | 1,1 | 1,0 | 1,3 |

Total/combined (compression) | γ_{t} |
1,0 | 1,1 | 1,0 | 1,3 |

Shaft in tension | γ_{s;t} |
1,25 | 1,15 | 1,1 | 1,6 |

_{R}) for bored piles

Resistance | Symbol | Set | |||

R1 |
R2 |
R3 |
R4 |
||

Base | γ_{b} |
1,25 | 1,1 | 1,0 | 1,6 |

Shaft (compression) | γ_{s} |
1,0 | 1,1 | 1,0 | 1,3 |

Total/combined (compression) | γ_{t} |
1,15 | 1,1 | 1,0 | 1,5 |

Shaft in tension | γ_{s;t} |
1,25 | 1,15 | 1,1 | 1,6 |

_{R}) for continuous flight auger (CFA) piles

Resistance | Symbol | Set | |||

R1 |
R2 |
R3 |
R4 |
||

Base | γ_{b} |
1,1 | 1,1 | 1,0 | 1,45 |

Shaft (compression) | γ_{s} |
1,0 | 1,1 | 1,0 | 1,3 |

Total/combined (compression) | γ_{t} |
1,1 | 1,1 | 1,0 | 1,4 |

Shaft in tension | γ_{s;t} |
1,25 | 1,15 | 1,1 | 1,6 |