# 1.6 Symbols (p. I)

(1) For the purpose of EN 1997-1 the following symbols apply.

Latin letters

*A*'

effective base area

*A*

_{b}

base area under pile

*A*

_{c}

total base area under compression

*A*

_{s;i}

pile shaft surface area in layer

*i**a*

_{d}

design value of geometrical data

*a*

_{nom}

nominal value of geometrical data

Δ

*a*change made to nominal geometrical data for particular design purposes

*b*

width of a foundation.

*b*'

effective width of a foundation

*C*

_{d}

limiting design value of the effect of an action

*c*

cohesion intercept

*c*'

cohesion intercept in terms of effective stress

*c*

_{u}

undrained shear strength

*c*

_{u;d}

design value of undrained shear strength

*d*

embedment depth;

*E*

_{d}

design value of the effect of actions

*E*

_{stb;d}

design value of the effect of stabilising actions

*E*

_{dst;d}

design value of the effect of destabilising actions

*F*

_{c;d}

design axial compression load on a pile or a group of piles

*F*

_{d}

design value of an action

*F*

_{k}

characteristic value of an action

*F*

_{rep}

representative value of an action

*F*

_{t;d}

design axial tensile load on a tensile pile or a group of tensile piles

*F*

_{tr;d}

design value of the transverse load on a pile or a pile foundation

*G*

_{dst;d}

design value of the destabilising permanent actions for uplift verification

*G*

_{stb;d}

design value of the stabilising permanent vertical actions for uplift verification

*G*'

_{stb;d}

design value of the stabilising permanent vertical actions for heave verification (submerged weight)

*H*

horizontal load, or component of total action acting parallel to the foundation base

*H*

_{d}

design value of

*H**h*

height of a wall

*h*

water level for hydraulic heave

*h*'

height of a soil prism for verifying hydraulic heave

*h*

_{w;k}

characteristic value of the hydrostatic water head at the bottom of a soil prism

*K*

_{0}

coefficient of earth pressure at rest

*K*

_{0;β}

coefficient of earth pressure at rest for a retained earth surface inclined at angle β to the horizontal

*k*

ratio δ

_{d}/φ_{cv;d}*l*

foundation length;

*l*'

effective foundation length

*n*

number of e.g. piles or test profiles

*P*

load on an anchorage

*P*

_{d}

design value of

*P**P*

_{p}

proof load in a suitability test of a grouted anchorage

*Q*

_{dst;d}

design value of the destabilising variable vertical actions for uplift verification

*q*

_{b;k}

characteristic value of base resistance pressure

*q*

_{s;i;k}

characteristic value of shaft friction in stratum

*i**R*

_{a}

anchorage pull-out resistance

*R*

_{a;d}

design value of

*R*_{a}*R*

_{a;k}

characteristic value of

*R*_{a}*R*

_{b;cal}

pile base resistance, calculated from ground test results, at the ultimate limit state

*R*

_{b;d}

design value of the base resistance of a pile

*R*

_{b;k}

characteristic value of the base resistance of a pile

*R*

_{c}

compressive resistance of the ground against a pile, at the ultimate limit state

*R*

_{c;cal}

calculated value of

*R*_{c}*R*

_{c;d}

design value of

*R*_{c}*R*

_{c;k}

characteristic value of

*R*_{c}*R*

_{c;m}

measured value of

*R*_{c}in one or several pile load tests*R*

_{d}

design value of the resistance to an action

*R*

_{p;d}

design value of the resisting force caused by earth pressure on the side of a foundation

*R*

_{s;d}

design value of the shaft resistance of a pile

*R*

_{s;cal}

ultimate shaft friction, calculated using ground parameters from test results

*R*

_{s;k}

characteristic value of the shaft resistance of a pile

*R*

_{t}

ultimate tensile resistance of an isolated pile

*R*

_{t;d}

design value of the tensile resistance of a pile or of a group of piles, or of the structural tensile resistance of an anchorage

*R*

_{t;k}

characteristic value of the tensile resistance of a pile or a pile group

*R*

_{t;m}

measured tensile resistance of an isolated pile in one or several pile load tests

*R*

_{tr}

resistance of a pile to transverse loads

*R*

_{tr;d}

design resistance of transversally loaded pile

*S*

_{dst;d}

design value of the destabilising seepage force in the ground

*S*

_{dst;k}

characteristic value of the destabilising seepage force in the ground

*s*

settlement

*s*

_{0}

immediate settlement

*s*

_{1}

settlement caused by consolidation

*s*

_{2}

settlement caused by creep (secondary settlement)

*T*

_{d}

design value of total friction that develops around a block of ground in which a group of tension piles is placed, or on the part of the structure in contact with the ground

*u*

pore-water pressure

*u*

_{dst;d}

design value of destabilising total pore-water pressure

*V*

vertical load, or component of the total action acting normal to the foundation base

*V*

_{d}

design value of

*V**V*'

_{d}

design value of the effective vertical action or component of the total action acting normal to the foundation base

*V*

_{dst;d}

design value of the destabilising vertical action on a structure

*V*

_{dst;k}

characteristic value of the destabilising vertical action on a structure

*X*

_{d}

design value of a material property

*X*

_{k}

characteristic value of a material property

*z*

vertical distance