# 1.6 Symbols (p. II)

Greek letters

α

inclination of a foundation base to the horizontal

β

slope angle of the ground behind a wall (upward positive)

δ

structure-ground interface friction angle

δ

_{d}design value of δ

γ

weight density

γ'

effective weight density

γ

_{a}partial factor for anchorages

γ

_{a;p}partial factor for permanent anchorages

γ

_{a;t}partial factor for temporary anchorages

γ

_{b}partial factor for the base resistance of a pile

γ

_{c'}partial factor for the effective cohesion

γ

_{cu}partial factor for the undrained shear strength

γ

_{E}partial factor for the effect of an action

γ

_{f}partial factor for actions, which takes account of the possibility of unfavourable deviations of the action values from the representative values

γ

_{F}partial factor for an action

γ

_{G}partial factor for a permanent action

γ

_{G;dst}partial factor for a permanent destabilising action

γ

_{G;stb}partial factor for a permanent stabilising action

γ

_{m}partial factor for a soil parameter (material property)

γ

_{m;i}partial factor for a soil parameter in stratum

*i*γ

_{M}partial factor for a soil parameter (material property), also accounting for model uncertainties

γ

_{Q}partial factor for unconfined strength

γ

_{qu}partial factor for a resistance

γ

_{R}partial factor for a variable action

γ

_{R;d}partial factor for uncertainty in a resistance model

γ

_{R;e}partial factor for earth resistance

γ

_{R;h}partial factor for sliding resistance

γ

_{R;v}partial factor for bearing resistance

γ

_{s}partial factor for shaft resistance of a pile

γ

_{S;d}partial factor for uncertainties in modelling the effects of actions

γ

_{Q;dst}partial factor for a destabilising action causing hydraulic failure

γ

_{Q;stb}partial factor for a stabilising action against hydraulic failure

γ

_{s;t}partial factor for tensile resistance of a pile

γ

_{t}partial factor for total resistance of a pile

γ

_{w}weight density of water

γ

_{φ’}partial factor for the angle of shearing resistance (tan φ')

γ

_{γ}partial factor for weight density

θ

direction angle of

*H*ξ

correlation factor depending on the number of piles tested or of profiles of tests

ξ

_{a}correlation factor for anchorages

ξ

_{1}; ξ_{2}correlation factors to evaluate the results of static pile load tests

ξ

_{3}; ξ_{4}correlation factors to derive the pile resistance from ground investigation results, not being pile load tests.

ξ

_{5}; ξ_{6}correlation factors to derive the pile resistance from dynamic impact tests

ψ

factor for converting the characteristic value to the representative value

σ

_{stb;d}design value of stabilising total vertical stress

σ'

_{h;0}horizontal component of effective earth pressure at rest

σ(

*z*)stress normal to a wall at depth

*z*τ(

*z*)stress tangential to a wall at depth

*z*φ'

angle of shearing resistance in terms of effective stress

φ

_{cv}critical state angle of shearing resistance

φ

_{cv;d}design value of φ

_{cv}φ'

_{d}design value of φ'

Abbreviations

CFA Continuous flight auger piles

OCR over-consolidation ratio

NOTE 1 The symbols commonly used in all Eurocodes are defined in EN 1990:2002

NOTE 2 The notation of the symbols used is based on ISO 3898:1997.

(2) For geotechnical calculations, the following units or their multiples are recommended:

- force kN
- mass kg
- moment kNm
- mass density kg/m
^{3} - weight density kN/m
^{3} - stress, pressure, strength and stiffness kPa
- coefficient of permeability m/s
- coefficient of consolidation m
^{2}/s