5.9 Compressibility and deformation testing of soil
(1) This standard covers the requirements for measurement of deformation characteristics of soil in the triaxial apparatus and the oedometer.
5.9.2 Oedometer compressibility testing
(1) In the oedometer, the cylindrical specimen is confined laterally, and is subjected to discrete increments of vertical axial loading or unloading and allowed to drain axially. Oedometer compression and swelling tests and evaluation of the collapse potential of a soil are covered.
(2) Alternatively, a lest with continuous loading (constant rate of strain) may be carried out.
(3) The objective of the oedometer incremental compression and swelling tests is to determine the compression, consolidation and swelling characteristics of soil.
(4) The objective of the collapse potential test is to establish compressibility parameters for the soil in its unsaturated state, and to evaluate the additional compression upon inundation due to structural collapse of the soil.
(1)P For the determination of the compressibility of a stratum of clay, silt or organic soil, undisturbed samples (Quality Class 1) shall be used.
NOTE Small strain moduli of soil (e.g. moduli at less than 1 % strain for soft to medium clays) are very sensitive to all perturbations during sampling. According to 3.4.3 (3)P, specific sampling equipment and methods may be used, for example block sampling or stationary piston sampling or any other method known to give the best results for the soil to be tested.
(2)P For re-compacted specimens, the composition, density and water content of the prepared specimens relevant to the in-situ conditions and the specimen preparation method shall be specified.
(3)P When determining the compressibility characteristics of a soil stratum, the following items shall be taken into account:
- existing results of field investigations;
- existing settlement measurements from neighbouring sites;
- the number and quality of samples;
- the number and type of field tests;
- special consideration needed for sensitive and cemented samples;
- the specimen preparation;
- the orientation of the specimen;
- the need for additional classification tests.
(4) Carrying out alternative tests to the incremental oedometer test, for example constant rate of strain oedometer tests, may be considered.
(5)P The initial vertical stress shall not exceed the in-situ vertical effective stress.
NOTE For example for strain-softening clays, an initial stress of one fourth of the in-situ vertical effective stress can be considered an appropriate value.
(6) In a compression test, the highest vertical stress applied should be well in excess of the maximum effective vertical stress likely to occur in-situ. In a swelling test, the range of decrements of vertical stress to be applied during the test should include the range of stresses likely to be applied in-situ.
(7)P When testing the collapse potential, the test specimens shall be selected with adequate consideration of existing knowledge on the behaviour of the soil when subjected to inundation. The stress on the specimen at which inundation is applied shall be related to the range of vertical stresses likely to occur in-situ.
NOTE 1 Further in formation on a procedure, presentation and evaluation of Oedometer compressibility testing can be found in CEN ISO/TS 17892-5, (see X.4.5).
NOTE 2 Annex Q provides a guideline for the minimum number of samples and tests for one stratum, as well as additional information on the lest and its evaluation.
220.127.116.11 Evaluation and use of test results
(1) The oedometer test results may be used to estimate the yield stress (pre-consolidation pressure) for clays, organic soil and silty soil.
(2) It should be taken into account that the pre-consolidation pressure determined by the oedometer test can be greatly affected by sampling disturbance.
(3) The most common values to characterise compressibility are the oedometer modulus (Eoed), the coefficient of compressibility (mv), the compression index (Cc) and the pre-consolidation pressure (σ'p). Unloading and recompression can be represented by the swelling index (Cs). All these quantities are derived directly from the appropriate parts of the test curves.
(4) Settlements due to creep can be computed using the coefficient of secondary compression (Cα).
(5) The coefficient of consolidation cv can be derived using the one-dimensional consolidation theory.
(6) Any parameter in 18.104.22.168 (3) can be used for simple analyses of the settlement of spread foundations.
(7) If sample methods are applied, the oedometer modulus may be used.
5.9.3 Triaxial deformability testing
(1) The objective of the triaxial deformability testing of soil is to determine the deformation moduli (stiffness parameters).
(2) Depending on the loading path, various stiffnesses can be measured.
(3) According to the drainage conditions, drained or undrained moduli E' or Eu can be determined.
(4) Due to the non-linearity of soil behaviour, various moduli, e.g. tangent and/or secant moduli, may be defined at different stress or strain levels.
(1)P For the determination of the stiffness of a stratum of a soil, undisturbed samples (Quality Class 1) shall be used.
NOTE Small strain moduli of soil (e.g. moduli at less than 1 % strain) are very sensitive to all perturbations during sampling. According to 3.4.3 (3)P, specific sampling equipment and methods may be used, for example block sampling or stationary piston sampling or any other method known to give the best results for the soil to be tested.
(2)P A special instrumentation capable of measuring stresses and strains with high resolution shall be used for stiffness determination at strain levels below 0,1 %.
NOTE For determination of very small strain moduli, the techniques based on propagation of shear waves or other dynamic methods can be used.
(3)P When determining the stiffness characteristics of a soil stratum, the following items shall be considered:
- the quality of samples;
- the sensitivity, saturation, state of consolidation and cementation of soil;
- the specimen preparation;
- the orientation of the specimen.
22.214.171.124 Evaluation and use of test results
(1) The stiffness may be characterised by a complete curve, or by conventional values. For example, by the initial Young's modulus of elasticity (E0), or by the E50 corresponding to 50 % of the maximum shear stress, etc.
(2) Young's modulus and stress-strain curves of soft, normally consolidated soil may in some cases be determined from the standard triaxial strength tests.