Annex A

(informative)

Classification and examples

Family tree chart for displacement piles

NOTE 1 Prefabricated piles can be solid or hollow and can be extended by welding, splicing or jointing.

NOTE 2 Methods of driving piles apply to several types and requirements are noted in 8.3.

NOTE 3 Additional methods to improve pile capacity and assist installation are noted in 8.8.

NOTE 4 Both prefabricated and cast in place piles can be grouted. Requirements and possibilities are noted in 8.6.

Figure A.1 — Family tree chart for displacement piles
Example pile
a) Example of driven cast in place pile b) Example of screwed cast in place pile c) Example of prefabricated concrete pile (round or square) d) Example of steel pile (round or H) e) Example of prefabricated concrete conical pile (round or square)

 

Exemples of shafts and bases of displacement piles
f) Example of cast in place pile with enlarged base g) Example of cast in place pile with enlarged base h) Example of cast in place cased pile with enlarged base i) Example of pile with base of expanded body j) Example of enlarged base on steel H-pile
Figure A.2 — Exemples of shafts and bases of displacement piles
Examples of cross sections of precast concrete piles
a) Examples of cross sections of precast concrete piles
Example of cross section for cast in situ pile with permanent casing Example of cross section for grouted pile
b) Example of cross section for cast in situ pile with permanent casing c) Example of cross section for grouted pile

 

Examples of cross sections for steel piles
d) Examples of cross sections for steel piles
Exemples of cross sections of steel piles formed from steel sheet piles
e) Exemples of cross sections of steel piles formed from steel sheet piles
Exemple of concrete sheet piles forming a wall
f) Exemple of concrete sheet piles forming a wall
Figure A.3 — Examples of cross sections for displacement piles
Example for H-pile
a) Example for H-pile
Example for H-pile
b) Example for H-pile
Example of rockshoe for tubular steel and concrete piles Example of rockshoe for sloping rock

Key

  • 1 Special hardened rock point
c) Example of rockshoe for tubular steel and concrete piles d) Example of rockshoe for sloping rock
Figure A.4 — Examples for toe protection for prefabricated displacement piles
Construction of screw cast in place displacement pile
1. Drivinging in of drive tube 2. Placing of reinforcement cage 3. Concreting 4. Extraction of drive tube
a) Construction of screw cast in place displacement pile
Construction of driven cast in place displacement piles
1. Driving in of drive tube 2. Placing of reinforcement cage 3. Concreting and extraction of drive tube 4. Constructed pile
b) Construction of driven cast in place displacement piles
Figure A.5 — Examples of construction of cast in place displacement piles
Example of piling rig with impact hammer

Key

  • 1 Leaders
  • 2 Impact hammer
  • 3 Hammer cushion
  • 4 Helmet
  • 5 Pile
  • 6 Base machine
  • 7 Working platform
Figure A.6 — Example of piling rig with impact hammer
Examples of mechanical joints for prefabricated concrete displacement piles Examples of mechanical joints for prefabricated concrete displacement piles
a) b)

Key

  • 1 Locating pin
  • 2 Locking plug
  • 3 Push and Twist
Figure A.7 — Examples of mechanical joints for prefabricated concrete displacement piles
Example of combined pile

Key

  • 1 Steel tube cast into concrete top pile and impact driven into the timber pile
  • 2 Concrete pile element
  • 3 Reinforcement
  • 4 Steel tube
  • 5 Timber pile element
Figure A.8 — Example of combined pile
Examples of joint in squared timber pile

Key

  • 1 Plate tarred on inside face
  • 2 Dowel
  • 3 Screw position
Figure A.9 — Examples of joint in squared timber pile
Example of tool for screw pile
Figure A.10 — Example of tool for screw pile
Example of grouted pile

Key

  • 1 Prefabricated displacement pile
  • 2 Grout material
  • 3 Enlarged shoe
  • 1) Grout material is injected through a pipe at shoe level during driving
Figure A.11 — Example of grouted pile
Example of post grouted pile

Key

  • 1 Displacement pile
  • 2 Grout supply line
  • 3 Grout
  • 4 Non return valve
  • 1) Displacement pile is driven to final depth
  • 2) High pressure grouting is done after driving
Figure A.12 — Example of post grouted pile
Cast in place displacement pile Prefabricated displacement pile
a) Cast in place displacement pile b) Prefabricated displacement pile

Key

  • 1 Working level
  • 2 Pile top
  • 3 Casting level
  • 4 Cut off level (trim level)
  • 5 Pile head
  • 6 Pile shaft
  • 7 Pile bottom
  • 8 Pile base
  • 9 Toe level
  • 10 Pile shoe
Figure A.13 — Displacement piles, termes and levels

EN 12699:2001 Execution of special geotechnical work – Displacement piles