Annex C


Indirect tests

C.1 Cross-hole geophysical tests can be performed with the aim of checking the continuity of a series of interlocked jet grouted elements.

C.2 When high geometric accuracy is required, the alignment of the boreholes for geophysical tests or coring can be checked by borehole deviation measurements.

C.3 Both p-wave and s-wave velocities should be measured when performing cross-hole tests.

C.4 Values of E and G moduli in the strain field of microdeformations (ε < 10–4) can be indirectly obtained from the velocity measurements from cross-hole tests.

C.5 The geometry of a jet grouted element can also be assessed by CPT's (static cone penetration tests) per- formed through the element before set. This method applies mainly to jet grouted elements created in soil with high penetration resistance compared with the low resistance of the fresh grouted material.

C.6 Other test methods can be used in certain cases; examples include SPTs (standard penetration tests), dynamic cone, or pressuremeter.



Examples of site records of jet grouting works

NOTE The daily reports presented in this annex give an example of technical site documents for the execution of jet grouted columns, reflecting one of the possible choices of site organisation and of operation mode of the jet grouting string.

Two reports are presented, as often one mixing and pumping plant alternatively feeds one rig in the jet grouting phase, while one or more other rigs are performing drilling in the same site.

The jet grouting string can be withdrawn by a continuous or by a step-by-step movement. The second mode is reflected by the jet rig report in the annex, where a step length (usually few centimetres) and a time per step (usually ranging from few seconds to 40" or more, depending on column diameter, type of soil and of jet grouting system) are recorded.

Jet plant daily report
SITE:                                      ZONE


Shift from                               to
Pump type:


Supervisor instructions
  Value Grouter Grout control
Water pressure (bar)       Time Density
Water flow (l/min)    
Grout pressure (bar)    
Grout flow (l/min)        
  Grout A Grout B    
Cement/batch (kg)        
Water/batch (kg)        
Batch mass (kg)        
Batch volume (l)        
Grout density (kg/l)        
Grouter controls
Column N° Counter start drilling Counter end drilling Counter start prejetting Counter end prejetting Counter start jetting Counter end jetting Time start jetting Time end jetting Water pressure Grout pressure
Stoppages                                                     N° batches prepared =
Nature of stoppage Others observations

Jet rig daily report
SITE:                                            ZONE


Shift from                                     to
Rig type:


Supervisor instructions Sequence of execution of the columns
  Prejetting Jetting Driller
Depth column toe (m)      
Depth collumn head (m)      
Nozzle diameter (mm)      
Step length (cm)      
Time per step (s)      
Rotation speed (rpm)      
Water pressure (bar)      
Water flow (l/min)      
Grout pressure (bar)      
Grout flow (l/min)      
Air pressure (bar)      
Driller controls
Column N° Column Incli-
Time start drill Time end drill Depth end drill Time start prejet Time end prejet Time start jet Time end jet Depth end jet Water pressure Grout pressure Step length Time per step Air pressure
Spoils measurements
Column N° Depth Spoil density Samples moulded N° Others observations



Annex E


Degree of obligation of the provisions

The provisions are marked corresponding to their degree of obligation:

  • — RQ: requirement;
  • — RC: recommendation;
  • — PE: permission;
  • — PO: possibility and eventuality;
  • — ST: statement.
1 Scope: ST

2 Normative references: ST

3 Terms and definitions
3.1 – 3.20: ST

4 Specific needs
4.1: RQ
4.2: RQ
4.3: PO
4.4: RQ
4.5: RC

5 Geotechnical investigation
5.1: RQ
5.2: RQ
5.3: RC
5.4: RQ
5.5: RQ
5.6: RC

6 Materials
6.1: RQ
6.2: ST
6.3: PO
6.4: RC
6.5: PO
6.6: PO
6.7: RC
6.8: ST
6.9: RQ
6.10: RQ
6.11: RC
6.12: RQ
6.13: RQ
6.14: RQ
7 Design considerations
7.1 General
7.1.1: ST
7.1.2: RC
7.1.3: RQ
7.1.4: RQ
7.1.5: RQ
7.1.6: RC
7.1.7: RQ
7.1.8: RQ
7.1.9: RC
7.1.10: RC
7.1.11: RQ
7.1.12: RC
7.1.13: RQ
7.1.14: RC
7.1.15: RQ
7.1.16: RC
7.1.17: RQ
7.2 Geometry
7.2.1: ST
7.2.2: RQ
7.2.3: RQ
7.2.4: RC
7.2.5: RQ
7.3 Strength and deformation
7.3.1: ST
7.3.2: RQ
7.3.3: RQ
7.3.4: RC
7.3.5: ST
7.3.6: RQ
7.3.7: PO
7.4 Permeability
7.4.1: ST
7.4.2: RQ
7.4.3: RC
8 Execution
8.1 General
8.1.2: ST
8.1.3: ST
8.1.4: ST
8.1.5 Method statement RC RQ
8.1.6: ST
8.2 Equipment
8.2.1: ST
8.2.3: RC
8.2.4: ST
8.2.5: ST
8.2.6: ST
8.3 Preliminary works
8.3.1: RC
8.3.2: RQ
8.3.3: RC
8.3.4: RQ
8.3.5: RQ
8.4 Drilling
8.4.1: ST
8.4.2: RQ
8.4.3: RQ
8.4.4: RC
8.4.5: RC
8.4.6: RC
8.5 Jet grouting
8.5.1: RQ
8.5.2: RC
8.5.3: RQ
8.5.4: RC
8.5.5: RQ
8.5.6: RC
8.5.7: RQ
8.5.8: RQ
8.6 Spoil return
8.6.1: RQ
8.6.2: PO
8.6.3: RC
8.6.4: RQ
8.7 Placing the reinforcement:

9 Supervision, testing and
9.1 General
9.1.1: RC
9.1.2: ST
9.1.3: RQ
9.1.4: PE
9.1.5: RC
9.1.6: PE
9.2 Preliminary tests
9.2.1: RQ
9.2.2: RC
9.2.3: RC
9.2.4: RC
9.2.5: RC
9.2.6: ST
9.3 Supervision and process testing
9.3.1: RQ
9.3.2: RC
9.3.3: PO
9.3.4: RQ
9.3.5: RQ
9.3.6: RC
9.3.7: RC
9.3.8: RC
9.4 Testing on the constructed elements
9.4.1 Testing to assess geometry ST PO PO RC RQ RQ
9.4.2 Mechanical tests RQ RQ RC RC ST PO PO RQ RC
9.4.3 Permeability tests RC RQ PO
9.5 Monitoring
9.5.1: ST
9.5.2: RQ
9.5.3: RQ
9.5.4: RC

10 Execution documents
10.1 Documents available on site
10.1.1: RQ
10.1.2: RQ
10.2 Documents to be produced
on site
10.2.1: RQ
10.2.2: RQ
10.2.3: RQ
11 Special requirements
11.1 Compliance with national standards
11.1.1: RQ
11.2 Site safety
11.2.1: RQ
11.2.2: RQ
11.3 Protection of the environment
11.3.1: RQ
11.3.2: RQ
11.3.3: RQ

Annex A
Additional design requirements
A.1: RQ
A.2: RQ

Annex B
Ranges of jet grouting parameters

Annex C
Indirect tests
C.1: PO
C.2: PO
C.3: RC
C.4: ST
C.5: PO
C.6: PO

Annex D
Examples of site records of jet grouting works
Annex E
Degree of obligation of the provisions


EN 196, Methods of testing cement.

EN 12716:2001 Execution of special geotechnical works — Jet grouting