Some typical reinforcement forms
E.1.1 Examples of widely used types of steel reinforcement are described in the following clauses. The recommended specifications are based on extensive experience and trials or are justified by third party Certification, and are given for guidance for the relevant applications identified in Annex B.
E.1.2 The recommended grades of steel are particularly important with regard to durability, since they ensure a relatively uniform and superficial mode of corrosion, at a predictable rate, in moderately aggressive environments, as defined in Annex B.
E.2 Steel strips
E.2.1 Steel strip fill reinforcement should be made of steel conforming with EN 10025-2 (Hot-rolled products of structural steels – Part 2: Technical delivery conditions for non-alloy structural steels), or EN 10025-4 (Hot rolled products of structural steels – Part 4: Technical delivery conditions for thermomechanical rolled weldable fine grain structural steels. The steel should be grade S235, S275, S355, S420 or S460 and suitable for galvanising, where used.
E.3 Welded wire mesh, ladders or rods
E.3.1 Welded steel wire mesh, grids or ladders used as fill reinforcement should be made of cold drawn steel wire or hot rolled steel conforming with EN 10080 and then formed into the finished reinforcing product.
Rods and bars used as fill reinforcement should be made of cold drawn steel wire or hot rolled steel.
E.4 Ties, nuts and bolts
E.4.1 Standards given for the materials used for soil reinforcements will also apply to ties.
E.4.2 If nuts and bolts are used to join ties and steel reinforcements they should conform with EN ISO 898-1.
E.5.1 Steel strips, rods, bars, ladders or welded wire meshes may be provided with a galvanizing coating. The galvanizing shall conform to EN ISO 1461 with a local coating thickness of 70 µm. Thin strips may be galvanised in accordance with EN 10326 with a local coating thickness of 35 µm.
E.5.2 Steel strip ties hot dip galvanised per EN ISO 1461 should be bent into shape before they are coated.
E.5.3 Hot dip galvanisation of bolts and nuts should conform to the appropriate standard.
E.6 Zinc-aluminium spray coating
E.6.1 Zinc-aluminium thermal spray coatings applied to steel reinforcing strips for use in specific aggressive environments should conform with the requirements of EN ISO 2063 and be type (Zn85Al15)70 with a local coating thickness of 70 µ.
E.7 Woven wire mesh
E.7.1 Woven steel wire meshes used as fill reinforcement should be made of cold drawn steel conforming to EN 10218 and should be woven into the finished reinforcing product in accordance with EN 10223-3.
E.7.2 Hot dip galvanized coatings on wires for woven meshes should conform with EN 10244 and the extruded organic coating should conform to EN 10245.
Recommendations for facing units
F.1 Concrete panels
F.1.1 Prefabricated concrete panels should be made of vibrated concrete conforming with the requirements of EN 206-1. The design of the panels may be based on EN 1992 or, alternatively, on EN 1990, section 5, if it is principally validated by experimentation and testing. Because of their relatively small size, many panels are usually not reinforced. If reinforced, the units should be reinforced with steel reinforcing bars conforming to EN 10080.
F.1.2 To facilitate acceptable construction tolerances, prefabricated concrete units should be manufactured to the following tolerances: panel thickness within –5 mm +10 mm, panel dimensions and squareness, as determined by the difference between two diagonals, within 0,5 %, surface defects measured with a 1m long template within 5 mm on formed surfaces.
F.1.3 Prefabricated concrete units should not be transported to site or installed until the concrete has reached a compressive strength of at least 60 % of its characteristic compressive strength.
F.2 Concrete blocks
F.2.1 Unless specified otherwise, the concrete for machine-made hollow and solid concrete segmental blocks intended for use in the construction of reinforced fill walls, should conform to EN771-3
F.3 Welded steel wire mesh
F.3.1 Welded steel wire mesh or ladders used for facing units should be made of cold drawn steel wire or hot rolled steel conforming to EN 10080 and then formed into the finished reinforcing product and conform to EN 10223-4.
F.3.2 Where welded steel mesh facing units are galvanised, hot dip galvanising should conform to EN ISO 1461.
F.4 Woven steel wire mesh
F.4.1 Woven steel wire meshes used for facing units and gabions should be made of cold drawn steel wires conforming to EN 10218 and the finished product should be woven in accordance to EN 10223-3. Any Zinc/Aluminium coating should conform to EN ISO 10244 and any polymeric coating should comply with EN 10245.
F.5 Semi-elliptical steel units
F.5.1 Semi-elliptical steel facing units should be pressed from flat steel sheets, conforming with EN 10025-2, and be constructed of grade S235J, S275 and S355 steel.
F.5.2 Where semi-elliptical steel facing units are galvanised, hot dip galvanising should conform with EN ISO 1461 with a local coating thickness of 70 µ.