This document (EN 14475:2006) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 288 "Execution of special geotechnical works", the secretariat of which is held by AFNOR.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by July 2006, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by July 2006.

The design of reinforced fill structures is currently carried out using national standards such as BS 8006 (1995) and NF P 94-220 (1998) and other standards. As a matter of fact EN 1997-1, Eurocode 7 (Geotechnical design) does not currently cover the detailed design of reinforced fill structures. The values of partial factors and load factors given in EN 1997-1 have not been calibrated for reinforced fill structures.

Whilst many common features exist between the design methods that have been developed and established in the various member countries of CEN, there are also differences reflecting different working practices, as well as such matters as geological and climatic variations.

In view of these differences, and of the time required to develop a common design method that would fully reflect the various considerations identified in particular national methods, a two stage approach has been adopted for the development of standards for reinforced fill.

In accordance with this two stage approach Working Group 9 was mandated by TC 288 for first producing an EN giving guidance on the Execution of reinforced fill, before working towards a common method of design. This standard represents the implementation of the first part of that mandate.

According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.

1 Scope

1.1 This European Standard establishes general principles for the construction of reinforced fill.

1.2 This European Standard covers engineered fills that are reinforced by the inclusion of horizontal or sub- horizontal reinforcement placed between layers of fill during construction.

1.3 The scope of reinforced fill applications considered in this European Standard includes (Figure 1):

  • earth retaining structures, (vertical, battered or inclined walls, bridge abutments, bulk storage facilities), with a facing to retain fill placed between the reinforcing layers;
  • reinforced steep slopes with a facing, either built-in or added or wrap-around, reinforced shallow slopes without a facing, but covered by some form of erosion protection without a facing, reinstatement of failed slopes;
  • embankments with basal reinforcement and embankments with reinforcement against frost heave in the upper part.

Principles for the execution of other special geotechnical works using soil nails, bored piles, displacement piles, micro piles, sheet pile walls, diaphragm walls, grouting or jet grouting are established in other European Standards.

Reinforcement of road pavements is not covered by this Standard.

Walls Abutments
a) Walls b) Abutments
Mixed abutments Mixed abutments
c) Mixed abutments d) Reinforced slopes
Basal reinforcement Basal mattress

e) Basal reinforcement


  • 1 Reinforcement
  • 2 Soft deposit

f) Basal mattress


  • 1 Thin soft layer
  • 2 Firm layer
Piled embankments with basal reinforcement Reinforcement over areas prone to subsidence

g) Piled embankments with basal reinforcement


  • 1 Reinforcement
  • 2 Piles

h) Reinforcement over areas prone to subsidence


  • 1 Reinforcement
  • 2 Potential weak zones or voids
Reinforcement in areas prone to frost heave Offshore Basal Reinforcement

i) Reinforcement in areas prone to frost heave


  • 1 Reinforcement
  • 2 Ice lenses

j) Offshore Basal Reinforcement


  • 1 Reinforcement
  • 2 Lake or sea
  • 3 Soft seabed
Figure 1 — Some reinforced fill applications

EN 14475:2006 Execution of special geotechnical works – Reinforced fill