This standard is applicable to the installation, testing and monitoring of permanent and temporary ground anchors where the load capacity is tested. An anchor consists of an anchor head, A free anchor length and a fixed anchor length which is bonded to the ground by grout. The term "ground" is taken to encompass both soil and rock.
The planning and design of ground anchors calls for experience and knowledge in this specialized field and although these topics are covered briefly in ENV 1997-1 Eurocode 7: Geotechnical Design, Part 1: General Rules a more detailed treatment of the design of ground anchors is included in an annex to this standard.
The installation and testing phases require skilled and qualified labour and supervision. This standard cannot replace the knowledge of specialist personnel and the expertise of experienced contractors required to apply the standard.
This standard does not address alternative systems of anchoring such as tension piles, screw anchors, mechanical anchors, soil nails, expander anchors or deadman anchors.
The standard establishes and defines principles with regard to anchor technology. Where anchor systems do not comply with the principles defined in the text, flexibility in the use of these systems is offered by written acceptance of the Client's Technical Representative.
2 Normative references
This European Standard incorporates by dated or undated reference, provisions from other publications. These normative references are cited at the appropriate places in the text and the publications are listed hereafter. For dated references, subsequent amendments to or revisions of any of these publications apply to this European Standard only when incorporated in it by amendment or revision. For undated references the latest edition of the publication referred to applies.
Exceptionally the list of normative references contains European Pre-standards which are at the draft stage. If any of these documents becomes a European Standard the reference shall be checked.
EN 45014, General criteria for declaration of conformity.
ENV 206, Concrete - Performance, production, placing and compliance criteria.
ENV 1991-1-1, Eurocode 1: Basis of design and actions on structures - Part 1-1: Basis of Design.
ENV 1992-1-1, Eurocode2: Design of concrete structures - Part 1-1: General rules - General rules and rules for buildings.
ENV 1992-1-5, Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures - Part 1-5: Structures with unbonded and external prestressing tendons.
ENV 1993-1-1, Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures - Part 1-1: General Rules and rules for buildings.
ENV 1994-1-1, Eurocode 4: Design of composite steel and concrete structures - Part 1-1:- General rules and rules for buildings.
ENV 1997-1:1994, Eurocode 7: Geotechnical design - Part 1: General rules.
prEN 445, Grout for prestressing tendons - Test methods.
prEN 446, Grout for prestressing tendons - Grouting procedures.
prEN 447, Grout for prestressing tendons.
prEN 10138, Design of prestressing steel - Specification for common grout.