3.3

# Activities (03 14xxx)

03 14001

plastic design

method of structural design based on the assumption that under increased loads (01) a redistribution of stress (01) takes place across a structural member (01) after yield point (01) is reached

03 14002

prestress

introduce into a structural member (01) internal stresses (01) of such magnitude and distribution that the stresses (01) resulting from subsequent applied loads (01) are modified

03 14003

post-tension

03 14004

shore

erect shore (01)

03 14005

backprop

distribute construction loads (03 17023) through more than one level of construction (01)

3.4

## Processes (03 15xxx)

03 15001

deflection

deformation (01) of a structural member (01) caused by bending

03 15002

tension

state in part of a structural member (01) subject to forces (01) that extend it

3.5

## Properties (03 17xxx)

03 17001

fatigue

damage to a structural member (01) caused by repeated application of stresses (01) insufficient to induce failure (11 17012) by a single application

03 17002

monolithic

formed of a single stone (01), or cast to form a structurally continuous mass

03 17003

normal stress

stress (01) component perpendicular to the area concerned

03 17004

permissible stress

03 17005

proof stress

03 17006

yield stress

stress (01) corresponding to a yield point (01)

03 17007

punching shear

stress (01) imposed on a structural member (01) by a load (01) from one structural member (01) tending to penetrate that member

*NOTE Calculated by dividing the load (01) from one structural member (01) by the product of the perimeter of its bearing surface (03 12003) area and the thickness (01) of the member.*

03 17008

elastic limit

highest stress (01) that can be applied without producing permanent deformation (01)

03 17009

ultimate bearing strength

stress (01) that can be supported by ground (01) or by a construction (01) without applying a factor of safety (01)

03 17010

effective length

length (01) of a beam (01), strut (01) or wall (01) assumed for calculating the slenderness ratio (01)

03 17011

effective span

03 17012

simply supported

without, or assumed to be without, fixity at supports

03 17013

lever arm

distance between the centroids of compressive and tensile forces (01) in a structural member (01) subject to bending

03 17014

neutral axis

plane in a structural member (01) subject to bending, where longitudinal stress (01) is zero

03 17016

stress/strain curve

diagrammatic representation of the relationship between stress (01) and strain (01) in a material (01)

03 17017

secant modulus

slope (01) of the straight line drawn from the origin to any given point on a stress/strain curve (03 17016)

03 17018

tangent modulus

03 17019

section modulus

second moment of area of a plane section about its axis in its plane through the centroid, divided by the distance from that axis to the most remote point of that area

03 17020

plastic modulus

algebraic sum of the first moments of area about an axis through the centroid of a cross-section of a structural member (01)

03 17021

modular ratio

ratio of the elastic modulus (03 17022) of two materials (01) acting together in a structural member (01)

03 17022

elastic modulus

quotient of stress (01) divided by corresponding strain (01) in a material (01) over the range for which this value is constant

03 17023

construction load

load (01) from one structural member (01) specifically related to the execution of construction works (01)