5

Substructures and foundations (03 3xxxx)

5.1

Parts (03 32xxx)

03   32001
ground beam
beam (01) in a substructure (01) transmitting load (01) from one structural member (01) to a pile (01), pad foundation (03 32006) or other foundation (01)
03   32002
leg
support in an underpinning (01) forming part of the permanent work
cf. leg (03 46004)
03   32003
tanking
impervious membrane that prevents infiltration of subsurface water
03   32004
kentledge
material (01) used as a temporary load (01) from one structural member (01)
03   32005
grillage
assembly (01) of layers of beams (01) on top of and at right angles to each other, to distribute or concentrate a load (01) from one structural member (01)
03   32006
pad foundation
isolated foundation (01) that spreads a concentrated load (01) from one structural member (01)
03   32007
piled raft
foundation (01) formed of piles (01) and a raft foundation (01)
acting together
03   32008
widestrip foundation
strip foundation (01) of such a width (01) that transverse reinforcement (09 33068) is necessary
03   32009
trench fill foundation
foundation (01) formed by backfilling (01) a mechanically excavated narrow trench (03 22010) with loadbearing concrete (01)
03   32010
soldier pile
vertical member that supports walings (03 26016) or horizontal poling boards (03 26029)
03   32011
needle pile
small diameter pile (01) of cast-in-place reinforced concrete (09 33032), steel tube (01) or bar (01) drilled or driven through and connected to an existing foundation (01) or substructure (01), and the surrounding soil (01) to improve structural stability
03   32012
mini pile
small pile (01) installed with lightweight equipment
NOTE Usually less than 300 mm in diameter.
03   32013
composite pile
pile (01) constructed to suit particular conditions using more than one method of construction (01)
03   32014
raking pile
pile (01) installed at an inclination to the vertical
03   32015
totally preformed pile
driven pile (BS EN 12699) manufactured or assembled above ground level (01)
03   32016
timber pile
totally preformed pile (03 32015) of timber (01)
03   32017
steel pile
totally preformed pile (03 32015) of steel
03   32018
H-pile
steel pile (03 32017) of rolled steel H-section (01)
03   32019
box pile
steel pile (03 32017) of hollow section (01)
03   32020
pipe pile
tubular pile
cylindrical box pile (03 32019)
03   32021
small diameter bored pile
bored pile (BS EN 1536) with a diameter of 600 mm or less
03   32022
large diameter bored pile
bored pile (BS EN 1536) with a diameter greater than 600 mm
03   32023
percussive bored pile
bored pile (BS EN 1536) with the hole being cut by percussive means
03   32024
rotary bored pile
bored pile (BS EN 1536) with the hole being formed by an excavation (01) tool (01) mounted on a kelly bar (03 36017)
03   32025
augered pile
bored pile (BS EN 1536) that utilizes a hole formed by auger boring (01)
03   32026
straight shafted augered pile
03   32027
underreamed pile
belled pile
large diameter bored pile (03 32022) that has an enlarged base (BS EN 1536) formed by undercutting
03   32028
jacked pile
pile (01) forced into place by jacking it against a reaction
NOTE Usually formed in short sections; typically jacked against weight (11 27002) of structure (01).
03   32029
king pile
long pile (01) installed prior to forming an excavation (01) and providing intermediate support to struts (01) in wide, strutted sheet pile (01) excavation (01)
03   32030
rock socket
lower portion of a pile (01) boring, penetrating into sound rock (03 23027)
5.2

Materials (03 33xxx)

03   33001
drilling fluid
mixture of water and other materials (01) used in boring, drilling, tunnelling or other excavation (01) to lubricate tools (01), stabilize excavated faces and transport spoil (03 23023)
03   33002
filter cake
semi-stable layer of permeable soil (01) formed in the face of an excavation (01) by the infiltration of particles from a drilling fluid (03 33001)
03   33003
slip layer
coat (01) applied to a pile (01) shaft to minimize negative skin friction (03 36008)
5.3

Activities (03 34xxx)

03   34001
mud-in
stir bentonite (01) powder and water into granular soil (03 23013) with auger boring (01) to facilitate the installation of a temporary casing (BS EN 12699)
03   34002
direct circulation boring
method of boring in which fluid passes down a central pipe (01) to lubricate the tool (01) and make the spoil (03 23023) rise
03   34003
reverse circulation boring
method of boring in which the lubricating fluid is used to transport spoil (03 23023) by pumping it up a central pipe (01)
03   34004
air lifting
pumping technique in which air is pumped into the base of a suction pipe (01) to reduce density (01) of material (01) in the pipe (01) and induce upward flow to evacuate solids and fluids
03   34005
blow
single application of a force (01) to drive a pile (01) into the ground (01)
03   34006
compressed air work
work in a chamber that has been pressurized with compressed air (BS EN 12110)

BS 6100-3:2007 Building and civil engineering – Vocabulary Part 3: Civil engineering – General