11 Special aspects (environment, site safety)
This chapter deals with those aspects of site safety and the protection of the environment which are specific to grouting operations. For general rules concerning site safety and protection of the environment, the relevant European and National Standards shall be consulted/taken into account.
11.1 Personnel safety
11.1.1 The safety of personnel and third parties is of prime importance.
11.1.2 The following potential problems should be considered when using grouts:
- dust from powdered chemicals which are toxic to the skin, eyes or respiratory system;
- fumes released from liquid grout mixtures;
- grout components or grouts which are harmful on contact with the skin;
- contamination of groundwater;
- mixing of chemicals which can cause explosion;
- disposal of refuse or waste water.
11.1.3 For all grouting works, protective clothing and gloves shall be worn at all times since most chemical grouts contain some components which are toxic to the skin. Face masks shall be available for workmen who work in closed areas where fumes from grouts or dust from grout components may be breathed. Protective headgear shall be available for all workmen at the site. Safety goggles shall be available for workmen in areas where grout is being injected.
11.1.4 Large batches of epoxy or polyester resins often generate significant amounts of heat and should therefore be handled with care.
11.2 Environmental protection
11.2.1 Environmental impact, particularly the toxicity of the grout and the grout components and their effect on the ground- and drinking water should be considered before grouting.
11.2.2 When testing the grouting material for environmental impact, the following aspects should be considered:
- whether during processing, transport or grouting, substances can be generated or released which could be hazardous to the environment or the grouting crew;
- whether noxious substances can spread upon mixing with ground water;
- whether reaction products can be produced or released which influence the water quality;
- the type of particles eroded from hardened grout;
- chemical reactions between hardened grout and the ground water.
11.2.3 Environmental impact risks on site include:
- induced ground movement;
- changes of groundwater level;
- spreading of grout;
- pollution of groundwater;
- arial distribution (dust).
11.2.4 Arrangements for disposal of excess grout should be made before the grouting operation begins. Advance consideration should also be given to:
- ventilation in confined spaces;
- catchtrays below grout pumps;
- isolation of flammable materials;
- used water collection.